PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system that uses and extends the SQL language combined with many features that safely store and scale the most complicated data workloads. The origins of PostgreSQL date back to 1986 as part of the POSTGRES project at the University of California at Berkeley and has more than 30 years of active development on the core platform.

PostgreSQL has earned a strong reputation for its proven architecture, reliability, data integrity, robust feature set, extensibility, and the dedication of the open source community behind the software to consistently deliver performant and innovative solutions. PostgreSQL runs on all major operating systems, has been ACID-compliant since 2001, and has powerful add-ons such as the popular PostGIS geospatial database extender. It is no surprise that PostgreSQL has become the open source relational database of choice for many people and organizations.

Getting started with using PostgreSQL has never been easier – pick a project you want to build, and let PostgreSQL safely and robustly store your data.


PostgreSQL comes with many features aimed to help developers build applications, administrators to protect data integrity and build fault-tolerant environments, and help you manage your data no matter how big or small the dataset. In addition to being the free and open source, PostgreSQL is highly extensible. For example, you can define your own data types, build out custom functions, even write code from different programming languages without recompiling your database!

PostgreSQL tries to conform with the SQL standard where such conformance does not contradict traditional features or could lead to poor architectural decisions. Many of the features required by the SQL standard are supported, though sometimes with slightly different syntax or function. Further moves towards conformance can be expected over time. As of the version 10 release in October 2017, PostgreSQL conforms to at least 160 of the 179 mandatory features for SQL:2011 Core conformance, where as of this writing, no relational database meets full conformance with this standard.

Below is an inexhaustive of various features found in PostgreSQL, with more being added in every major release:

Data Types

  • Primitives: Integer, Numeric, String, Boolean
  • Structured: Date/Time, Array, Range, UUID
  • Document: JSON/JSONB, XML, Key-value (Hstore)
  • Geometry: Point, Line, Circle, Polygon
  • Customizations: Composite, Custom Types

Data Integrity

  • Primary Keys
  • Foreign Keys
  • Exclusion Constraints
  • Explicit Locks, Advisory Locks

Concurrency, Performance

  • Indexing: B-tree, Multicolumn, Expressions, Partial
  • Advanced Indexing: GiST, SP-Gist, KNN Gist, GIN, BRIN, Bloom filters
  • Sophisticated query planner/optimizer, index-only scans, multicolumn statistics
  • Transactions, Nested Transactions (via savepoints)
  • Multi-Version Concurrency Control (MVCC)
  • Parallelization of reading queries
  • Table partitioning
  • All transaction isolation levels defined in the SQL standard, including Serializable

Reliability, Disaster Recovery

  • Write-ahead Logging (WAL)
  • Replication: Asynchronous, Synchronous, Logical
  • Point-in-time-recovery (PITR), active standbys
  • Tablespaces


  • Authentication: GSSAPI, SSPI, LDAP, SCRAM-SHA-256, Certificate, and more
  • Robust access-control system
  • Column and row-level security


  • Stored procedures
  • Procedural Languages: PL/PGSQL, Perl, Python (and many more)
  • Foreign data wrappers: connect to other databases or streams with a standard SQL interface
  • Many extensions that provide additional functionality, including PostGIS

Internationalisation, Text Search

  • Support for international character sets, e.g. through ICU collations
  • Full-text search

There are many more features that you can discover in the PostgreSQL documentation. Additionally, PostgreSQL is highly extensible: many features, such as indexes, have defined APIs so that you can build out with PostgreSQL to solve your challenges.

PostgreSQL has been proven to be highly scalable both in the sheer quantity of data it can manage and in the number of concurrent users it can accommodate. There are active PostgreSQL clusters in production environments that manage many terabytes of data, and specialized systems that manage petabytes.

PostgreSQL features highlights

PostgreSQL has many advanced features that other enterprise database management systems offer, such as:

  • User-defined types
  • Table inheritance
  • Sophisticated locking mechanism
  • Foreign key referential integrity
  • Views, rules, subquery
  • Nested transactions (savepoints)
  • Multi-version concurrency control (MVCC)

Asynchronous replication

The recent versions of PostgreSQL support the following features:

  • Native Microsoft Windows Server version
  • Tablespaces
  • Point-in-time recovery
  • And more new features are added in each new release.

What makes PostgreSQL stand out

PostgreSQL is the first database management system that implements multi-version concurrency control (MVCC) feature, even before Oracle. The MVCC feature is known as snapshot isolation in Oracle.

PostgreSQL is a general-purpose object-relational database management system. It allows you to add custom functions developed using different programming languages such as C/C++, Java, etc.

PostgreSQL is designed to be extensible. In PostgreSQL, you can define your own data types, index types, functional languages, etc. If you don’t like any part of the system, you can always develop a custom plugin to enhance it to meet your requirements e.g., adding a new optimizer.

If you need any support, an active community is available to help. You can always find the answers from the PostgreSQL’s community for the issues that you may have when working with PostgreSQL. Many companies offer commercial support services in case you need one.

Who is using PostgreSQL

Many companies have built products and solutions using PostgreSQL. Some featured companies are Apple, Fujitsu, Red Hat, Cisco, Juniper Network, etc. Check it out the PostgreSQL’s featured users section for the complete list of organizations who are using PostgreSQL.

PostgreSQL’s community pronounces PostgreSQL as /ˈpoʊstɡrɛs ˌkjuː ˈɛl/. The original name of PostgreSQL is Postgres therefore, sometimes PostgreSQL is referred to as Postgres.

We’re glad you choose the PostgreSQL to work with. Let’s download and install PostgreSQL to start learning PostgreSQL

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